Ukonyuka komthamo webhetri yokugcina amandla kukhulu kakhulu, kodwa kutheni kusekho ukunqongophala?

Ihlobo lika-2022 yayilelona xesha lishushu kwinkulungwane yonke.

Kwakushushu kangangokuba amalungu ayebuthathaka kwaye nomphefumlo uphumile emzimbeni;kushushu kangangokuba isixeko sonke saba mnyama.

Ngexesha apho umbane wawunzima kakhulu kubahlali, iSichuan yagqiba ekubeni iwunqumle umbane wemizi-mveliso kangangeentsuku ezintlanu ukususela ngo-Agasti 15. Emva kokuba kuqaliswe ukucima kombane, inani elikhulu leenkampani zemizi-mveliso layimisa imveliso laza lanyanzela abasebenzi abapheleleyo ukuba bathabathe iholide.

Ukusukela ekupheleni kukaSeptemba, ukunqongophala kokubonelela ngebhetri kuqhubekile, kwaye umkhwa weenkampani zokugcina amandla okumisa ii-odolo ziye zaqina.Ukunqongophala kokunikezelwa kogcino lwamandla nako kutyhalele isekethe yokugcina amandla ukuya kutsho kuvutho-ndaba.

Ngokwezibalo zoMphathiswa woShishino, isiqingatha sokuqala salo nyaka, imveliso yebhetri yokugcina amandla esizwe ngaphezulu kwe-32GWh.Ngo-2021, indawo entsha yokugcina amandla yaseTshayina yongeze i-4.9GWh kuphela.

Kuyabonakala ukuba ukonyuka komthamo webhetri yogcino lwamandla, kube kukhulu kakhulu, kodwa kutheni kusekho ukunqongophala?

Eli phepha libonelela ngohlalutyo olunzulu lwezizathu zokunqongophala kwebhetri yokugcina amandla eTshayina kunye nesalathiso sayo kwixesha elizayo kwezi ndawo zintathu zilandelayo:

Okokuqala, imfuno: uhlengahlengiso oluyimfuneko lwegridi

Okwesibini, ukubonelela: ayikwazi ukukhuphisana nemoto

Okwesithathu, ikamva: ukutshintshela kwibhetri yolwelo?

Imfuno: Uhlaziyo lwegridi oluyimfuneko

Ukuze uqonde imfuneko yokugcina amandla, zama ukuphendula umbuzo omnye.

Kutheni ukucinywa kombane ngomlinganiselo omkhulu kudla ngokwenzeka eTshayina ngeenyanga zasehlotyeni?

Ukusuka kwicala lemfuno, zombini ukusetyenziswa kombane kwimizi-mveliso kunye nendawo yokuhlala kubonisa inqanaba elithile "lokungalingani kwexesha", kunye namaxesha "encopho" kunye "nomkhombe".Kwiimeko ezininzi, unikezelo lwegridi lunokuhlangabezana nemfuno yemihla ngemihla yombane.

Nangona kunjalo, amaqondo obushushu aphezulu ehlotyeni anyusa ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo zokuhlala.Kwangaxeshanye, iinkampani ezininzi zihlengahlengisa amashishini azo kwaye ixesha eliphakamileyo lokusetyenziswa kombane lisehlotyeni.

Ukusuka kwicala lokubonelela, ukubonelelwa komoya kunye namandla ombane azinzile ngenxa yeemeko zemozulu kunye nemozulu yexesha lonyaka.ESichuan, umzekelo, i-80% yombane waseSichuan uvela kumbane owenziwe ngamanzi.Kwaye kulo nyaka, iPhondo laseSichuan liye lafumana intlekele enqabileyo yobushushu kunye nembalela, eyahlala ixesha elide, kunye nokunqongophala okunzulu kwamanzi kwizitya eziphambili kunye nokunikezelwa kombane oqinileyo ovela kwizityalo zombane.Ukongeza, imozulu embi kakhulu kunye nezinto ezinje ngokuncipha ngesiquphe kumandla omoya nazo zinokwenza iiinjini zomoya zingakwazi ukusebenza ngesiqhelo.

Kumxholo womsantsa omkhulu phakathi konikezelo lwamandla kunye nemfuno, ukuze kwandiswe ukusetyenziswa kwegridi yamandla ukuqinisekisa unikezelo lombane, ugcino lwamandla lube lukhetho olungenakuthintelwa ukomeleza ukuguquguquka kwenkqubo yamandla.

Ukongeza, inkqubo yamandla yaseTshayina iyatshintshwa ukusuka kumandla emveli ukuya kumandla amatsha, umbane wefoto, amandla omoya kunye namandla elanga azinzanga kakhulu ngokweemeko zendalo, ikwanemfuno ephezulu yokugcina amandla.

NgokoLawulo lweSizwe lwaMandla, iChina ifakele umthamo oyi-26.7% wembonakalo-mhlaba ngo-2021, ngaphezulu komndilili wehlabathi.

Ukuphendula, ngo-Agasti ka-2021, iKomishoni yoPhuhliso kunye noHlaziyo lweSizwe kunye noLawulo lweSizwe lwezaMandla bakhupha isaziso malunga nokukhuthaza amashishini okuvelisa amandla ahlaziyekayo ukuba azakhele okanye athenge umthamo ophakamileyo wokunyusa ubungakanani boqhagamshelwano lwegridi, ecebisa ukuba

Ngaphaya komlinganiselo ongaphaya koqhagamshelo lwegridi oluqinisekisiweyo lwamashishini egridi, ekuqaleni, amandla okuphakama aya kwabelwa ngokomlinganiselo we-pegging we-15% yamandla (ngaphezu kwe-4h ubude), kwaye okuphambili kuya kunikwa abo babelwe ngokomlinganiselo wepegging. ye-20% okanye ngaphezulu.

Ingabonwa, kumxholo wokunqongophala kwamandla, ukusombulula ingxaki "yomoya oshiyiweyo, ukukhanya okushiyiweyo" akunakulibaziseka.Ukuba amandla angaphambili ashushu axhaswa yi-emboldened, ngoku uxinzelelo lomgaqo-nkqubo we-"double carbon" kufuneka luthunyelwe rhoqo, kodwa akukho ndawo yokusebenzisa amandla omoya kunye ne-photoelectricity egcinwe, esetyenziswa kwezinye iindawo.

Ngoko ke, umgaqo-nkqubo wesizwe waqala ukukhuthaza ngokucacileyo "ulwabiwo lokunyuka", ngakumbi umlinganiselo wolwabiwo, unako "igridi ephambili", uthathe inxaxheba kwintengiso yombane, ufumane ingeniso ehambelanayo.

Ekuphenduleni umgaqo-nkqubo ophakathi, ummandla ngamnye wenze imizamo emikhulu yokuphuhlisa ukugcinwa kwamandla kwizikhululo zamandla ngokweemeko zendawo.

Ubonelelo: Awukwazi ukukhuphisana neemoto

Ngokuzenzekelayo, ukunqongophala kwebhetri yokugcina isikhululo samandla, kuhambelana nokunyuka okungazange kubonwe ngaphambili kwizithuthi zamandla amatsha.Izikhululo zamandla kunye nokugcinwa kweemoto, zombini zinemfuno enkulu yeebhetri ze-lithium iron phosphate, kodwa nikela ingqalelo kwibhidi, izikhululo zamandla ezingabizi kakhulu, zingabamba njani iinkampani zemoto ezinoburharha?

Ngoko ke, ugcino lwesikhululo samandla ngaphambili bekukho ezinye zeengxaki ezivele.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ixabiso lokuqala lofakelo lwenkqubo yokugcina amandla liphezulu.Ukuchatshazelwa kunikezelo kunye nemfuno kunye nokunyuka kwamaxabiso ezinto ezisetyenzisiweyo kwikhonkco loshishino, emva kowama-2022, ixabiso lenkqubo yokugcinwa kwamandla egcweleyo, linyuke ukusuka kwi-1,500 yuan / kWh ekuqaleni kuka-2020, ukuya kwi-1,800 yuan / kWh yangoku.

Ukunyuka kwamaxabiso eshishini lokugcinwa kwamandla, ixabiso eliphambili lingaphezulu kweyure ye-yuan / watt, ii-inverters ngokubanzi zenyuka nge-5% ukuya kwi-10%, i-EMS nayo yenyuka malunga ne-10%.

Ingabonwa ukuba iindleko zokuqala zokufakela ziye zaba yinto ephambili ethintela ukwakhiwa kokugcinwa kwamandla.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umjikelo wokubuyisela iindleko ude, kwaye inzuzo inzima.Ukuya ku-2021 1800 yuan / kWh inkqubo yokugcina amandla ekubalwa kweendleko, isityalo samandla okugcina amandla amabini amabini abekwe, ahlawule kwaye akhuphe umahluko wexabiso eliphakathi kwi-0.7 yuan / kWh okanye ngaphezulu, ubuncinane iminyaka eyi-10 ukubuyisela iindleko.

Ngexesha elifanayo, ngenxa yenkuthazo yengingqi yangoku okanye amandla amatsha anyanzelekileyo kunye neqhinga lokugcina amandla, umlinganiselo we-5% ukuya kwi-20%, eyandisa iindleko ezizinzileyo.
Ukongeza kwezi zizathu zingentla, ugcino lwesikhululo samandla lukwafana nezithuthi zamandla amatsha ziya kutshisa, ukuqhuma, le ngozi yokhuseleko, nangona amathuba aphantsi kakhulu, ngakumbi vumela umngcipheko ophantsi kakhulu wokutya wesikhululo samandla utyhafe.

Kunokuthiwa "ulwabiwo oluqinileyo" lokugcinwa kwamandla, kodwa kungekhona umgaqo-nkqubo weentengiselwano eziqhagamshelwe kwigridi, ukuze imfuno eninzi yomyalelo, kodwa ingangxami ukuyisebenzisa.Ngapha koko, uninzi lwezikhululo zombane ngamashishini karhulumente, ukuqinisekisa ukhuseleko yeyona nto iphambili, nabo bajongana novavanyo lwemali, ngubani ongathanda ukungxamela ixesha lokubuyisela iprojekthi ende kangaka?

Ngokwemikhwa yokwenza izigqibo, ii-odolo ezininzi zokugcinwa kwamandla kwisikhululo samandla, kufuneka zibekwe, zixhonywe, zilindele ukucaca ngakumbi komgaqo-nkqubo.Imarike idinga umlomo omkhulu ukuze utye oononkala, kodwa ube nesibindi, emva koko, kungekhona abaninzi.

Kuyabonakala ukuba ingxaki yokugcinwa kwamandla kwisikhululo samandla ukumba nzulu, ukongeza kwinxalenye encinci yokunyuka kwexabiso le-lithium enyukayo, kukho inxalenye enkulu yezisombululo zobugcisa bemveli azisebenzi ngokupheleleyo kwimeko yesikhululo samandla, njani Ngaba kufuneka siyisombulule ingxaki?

Ngeli xesha, isisombululo sebhetri ye-liquid singene kwindawo ebonakalayo.Abanye abathathi-nxaxheba bemakethi baqaphele ukuba "umlinganiselo wogcino lwamandla ofakiweyo we-lithium uthande ukuhla ukusukela ngo-Epreli ka-2021, kwaye ukonyuka kwentengiso kuya kutshintshela kwiibhetri zokuhamba kwamanzi".Ke, yintoni le bhetri yolwelo?

Ixesha elizayo: utshintsho kwiibhetri zokuhamba kwamanzi?

Ukubeka ngokulula, iibhetri zokuhamba kwamanzi zineenzuzo ezininzi ezisebenzayo kwiimeko zeplanti yamandla.Iibhetri eziqhelekileyo zolwelo, kubandakanywa zonke-i-vanadium iibhetri zokuhamba kwamanzi, iibhetri ze-zinc-iron liquid flow, njl.

Ukuthatha zonke iibhetri ze-vanadium liquid flow njengomzekelo, iinzuzo zabo ziquka.

Okokuqala, ubomi bomjikelezo omude kunye nentlawulo efanelekileyo kunye neempawu zokukhupha zibenza bafanelekele iimeko zokugcina amandla amakhulu.Ubomi bomjikelezo wentlawulo / ukukhutshwa kwayo yonke i-vanadium liquid flow flow ibhetri yokugcina amandla ingaba ngaphezu kwamaxesha e-13,000, kwaye ubomi bekhalenda bungaphezulu kweminyaka eyi-15.

Okwesibini, amandla kunye nomthamo webhetri "uzimele" omnye komnye, okwenza kube lula ukulungisa ubungakanani bomthamo wokugcina amandla.Amandla ebhetri yonke i-vanadium liquid flow inqunywe ngubungakanani kunye nenani le-stack, kwaye umthamo unqunywe ngokugxininiswa kunye nomthamo we-electrolyte.Ukwandiswa kwamandla ebhetri kunokufezekiswa ngokunyusa amandla e-reactor kunye nokwandisa inani le-reactors, ngelixa ukunyuka kwamandla kunokufezekiswa ngokunyusa umthamo we-electrolyte.

Ekugqibeleni, imathiriyeli ekrwada inokuphinda isetyenziswe.Isisombululo sayo se-electrolyte sinokuphinda sisetyenziswe kwaye sisetyenziswe kwakhona.

Nangona kunjalo, ixesha elide, ixabiso leebhetri zokuhamba kwamanzi lihlala liphezulu, lithintela ukusetyenziswa kwentengiso enkulu.

Ukuthatha i-vanadium iibhetri zokuhamba kwamanzi njengomzekelo, iindleko zabo zivela ikakhulu kwi-reactor yombane kunye ne-electrolyte.

Iindleko ze-electrolyte zenza malunga nesiqingatha seendleko, ezichaphazelekayo kakhulu ngexabiso le-vanadium;ukuphumla lixabiso le-stack, elivela ikakhulu kwi-ion exchange membranes, i-carbon felt electrode kunye nezinye izinto eziphambili zecandelo.

Ukunikezelwa kwe-vanadium kwi-electrolyte ngumcimbi ophikisanayo.Oovimba be-vanadium baseTshayina bangowesithathu ngobukhulu emhlabeni, kodwa le nto ifumaneka ikakhulu kunye nezinye izinto, kwaye ukunyibilikisa ngumsebenzi ongcolisa kakhulu, osebenza ngamandla kunye nezithintelo zomgaqo-nkqubo.Ngaphezu koko, ishishini lentsimbi libalela uninzi lweemfuno ze-vanadium, kwaye umvelisi ophambili wasekhaya, i-Phangang Vanadium kunye ne-Titanium, ngokuqinisekileyo, ibonelela ngemveliso yentsimbi kuqala.

Ngale ndlela, i-vanadium iibhetri zokuhamba kwamanzi, kubonakala ngathi, iphinda ingxaki yezisombululo zokugcina amandla e-lithium-ukubamba umthamo onyukayo kunye noshishino oluninzi, kwaye ke ixabiso liguquguquka ngokuphawulekayo kwisiseko sebhayisikile.Ngale ndlela, kukho isizathu sokujonga izinto ezininzi zokubonelela ngesisombululo sebhetri esebenzayo yolwelo.

I-ion exchange membrane kunye ne-carbon feel electrode kwi-reactor ifana "nentamo" ye-chip.

Ngokuphathelele imbrane yokutshintshiselana nge-ion, amashishini asekhaya ikakhulu asebenzisa ifilimu yokutshintshiselana nge-Nafion proton eyenziwe nguDuPont, inkampani yekhulu leminyaka e-United States, ebiza kakhulu.Kwaye, nangona inozinzo oluphezulu kwi-electrolyte, kukho iziphene ezifana nokugqithiswa okuphezulu kwe-vanadium ion, akulula ukuthotywa.

I-carbon felt electrode material nayo ilinganiselwe ngabavelisi bangaphandle.Izinto ezilungileyo ze-electrode zinokuphucula ukusebenza kakuhle kunye namandla okuphuma kweebhetri zokuhamba kwamanzi.Nangona kunjalo, okwangoku, imakethi yekhabhoni ezivayo ihlala ikakhulu ngabavelisi bangaphandle abanje ngeSGL Group kunye neToray Industries.

I-Comprehensive down, ukubala, ixabiso le-vanadium liquid flow battery, kune-lithium iphezulu kakhulu.

Ugcino lwamandla ibhetri entsha yokuqukuqela yolwelo ebiza kakhulu, kusekho indlela ende ekufuneka ihanjwe.

I-Epilogue: Isitshixo sokuqhawula umjikelo omkhulu wasekhaya

Ukuthetha iwaka lamagama, ukugcinwa kwesikhululo samandla ukuphuhlisa, eyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu, kodwa kungekhona iinkcukacha zobugcisa, kodwa ukugcinwa kwesikhululo samandla esicacileyo sokuthatha inxaxheba kumzimba oyintloko weentengiselwano zemarike yamandla.

Inkqubo yegridi yamandla yaseTshayina inkulu kakhulu, inzima, ukuze isikhululo samandla esinokugcinwa kwamandla ngokuzimeleyo kwi-intanethi, ayisiyonto ilula, kodwa lo mbandela awunakubanjwa.

Kwizikhululo zamandla amakhulu, ukuba ulwabiwo logcino lwamandla lukwenza kuphela ezinye iinkonzo ezincedisayo, kwaye alinayo imo yorhwebo ezimeleyo, oko kukuthi, ayinakuba ngumbane ogqithisileyo, ukuya kwixabiso lemarike elifanelekileyo ukuthengisa kwabanye, ngoko ke le akhawunti isoloko inzima kakhulu ukubala ngaphezulu.

Ngoko ke, kufuneka senze konke okusemandleni ukudala iimeko zezikhululo zamandla kunye nokugcinwa kwamandla ukuze ziguquke zibe yimeko yokusebenza ezimeleyo, ukuze ibe ngumthathi-nxaxheba osebenzayo kwimarike yokuthengisa amandla.

Xa imarike iqhubekile phambili, ezininzi iindleko kunye neengxaki zobugcisa ezijongene nokugcinwa kwamandla, ndiyakholelwa ukuba oko kuya kusonjululwa.


Ixesha lokuposa: Nov-07-2022